Generalizing Political Corruption Rate in the Whole Region
WE see that all the countries involved in the research process are of former Soviet Block. Investigators of this question consider it to be a significant reason for the problem. Historical background of the countries show that almost all of them were oppressed by the more powerful neighbors and that had a serious impact on the development of political practice in the region. As a result we see the real problems that prevent assimilation of these countries to the European Union if we take into consideration the countries which joined this institution already. Using statistical data and observing situation the experts of Euro Union are ready to help: “But although the EU can help, the real transformation of attitudes must come from within Eastern Europe – not only among public servants but also in the wider population. In the rapidly evolving political systems of Eastern Europe, there is no well-established framework of democratic norms, against which behaviour can be judged and recognized as corrupt. Voters are generally inexperienced in checking the conduct of public officials and calling them to account. This is a legacy of Communist times, when the people had no say in the appointment of government officials and tended to assume that they would abuse their position for their own benefit. In the former Soviet bloc, corruption and other petty crime against the state was justified on the basis that the state was in some way dysfunctional or lacked legitimacy” (Liz Barret 2000). The after affects of the communist times probably have the most serious impact on the present day situation within the problem. The investigators take into account all the possible factors that could really influence the real situation but consider it to be one of the most significant.
– L. Holmes ‘Corruption and the Crisis of the Post-Communist State’, Newell and Bull (1997)
– T. Anusiewicz, T. Verheijen and A. L. Dimitrova, ‘Tackling Corruption in Central and Eastern Europe’, G. E. Caiden. (2001)
– Inge Amundsen. Political Corruption. Introduction to the Issue. Chr. Michelsen Institute, Bergen, Norway (1999)
– Khan, Mushtaq H.: “A Typology of Corrupt Transactions in Developing Countries” in IDS Bulletin, vol.27, no.2, April 1996.
– Nye, J.S.: “Corruption and Political Development: A Cost-Benefit Analysis” in American Political Science Review, vil.61, no.2, June 1967.
– Alexander Surdej and Kaja Gadowska. “Political Corruption in Poland”. Forschungsstelle Osteuropa an der Universität Bremen: vol. 65, 2005
– Jan Neutze Adrian Karatnycky, “Corruption, Democracy, and Investment in Ukraine”. The Atlantic Council of the United States. 2007
– Lizz Barret. “Corruption in Eastern Europe”. CER Bulletin, Issue 10, February 2000
– Martin Mikule. “How corrupt is Czech political culture?” Cezky Rozhlas: 18 October 2004
– Sofia News Agency. “Transparency International: Corruption in Bulgaria Is on the Rise”. September 23, 2008, Tuesday
– Ruslan Stefanov. “Good Governance and Anti-Corruption in Bulgaria and the European Union: Lessons Learned”. Eyes on Europe, 8th Issue, May – November 2008
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