Essays on Cultural Differences

Differences of views among exponents of different cultures
Such differences influence on companies’ management negatively. In most organizations cultural disparity is not admitted, but, in fact, it is one of the biggest reasons of misunderstandings and great issues. This can be clearly seen while making decisions – exponents of different groups find it hard to agree at one point. Such groups have following problems:

– indeterminacy;
– trim deficiency;
– muddle through misunderstanding;
– jumbling up facts around one mess;
– troubles in making common decision;
– everlasting disputes over each question;
– difference of views on company’s development scenarios (Tayeb, 1996).
These issues usually become the reason of employees’ ineffectiveness. Perpetual disputes and wrangles cause overexpenditures in both time and money and can lead to inappropriate resolving the matters by executives.

Moreover, there are companies which don’t take cultural distinctions into account, so they build up their rules, policies and ways of direction without catering for these differences. This means that the company leaders don’t know about the influence of cultural factors on business running. It is noteworthy that most managers can easily name negative sides of cultural distinction on example of any organization, but when they face these problems in real, they do not relate them to the diversity. Almost all the issues appear when distinct groups are looking for the common resolving of the problem, but can not reach a consensus (Kottolli, 2011).

Unity absence in multiethnic companies
Diversity groups usually see problems at different angles and while discussing the questions they have a good understanding of problematic issues but find it difficult to find the only denominator. Such bloody-mindedness often causes other problems between the workers:
– suspicion;
– incomprehension;
– work under pressure (Terry, 2011).

Suspicion
Exponents of groups with cultural disparity usually have less trust between each other than the equal group members. This makes them cooperate with employees of same culture and to have suspicion to others, which can appear under the influence of amiss stereotypes.

During researches it becomes evident.

Story of one employee can be a good example. This worker had experience in some company and they involved new people in the project, who worked as engineers and were of Puerto Rican origin. They got no respect from coworkers from Texas, as Americans thought the level of education in Puerto Rico is much lower than their. But it was wrong, as Puerto Rican engineers all graduated American universities and already had experience in compound projects. But American employees needed time to see their colleagues’ abilities (Buckley, 2011).
There can happen some other cases which would present us suspicion in relations between different groups, as people tend to communicate with representatives of the same culture and shirk exponents of distinct one. For instance, group of workers can start communicating on their native tongue, as other workers wouldn’t understand them and it would cause mistrust between employees of

different origin.

Incomprehension
Multiethnic groups in most cases have to use one language for communicating, which is usually dominating, and in fact it can be any language. But there are also non-native speakers, who can easily misunderstand other members of the team.

Plus to that there can be translation mistakes and the information be given partly, supposing that companions should catch the main idea. That usually needs acknowledgement of previously defined information and can lead to great leeway (Guilherme, 2010).

Work under pressure
Suspicion and incomprehension are the factors which influence the working atmosphere and make workers feel pressure. If employees understand that there can be made mistakes in understanding colleagues, they feel stress and fear, which make employees accomplish even more errors.

Homogenous groups are characterized with the calm and friendly atmosphere, where workers are easily sharing and discussing information. On the contrary the situation in multicultural groups is intense, as their members don’t want to display contempt to the others, and try to chew over the most necessary issues, but that looks factitious and insincere and causes depressing feelings, which effect performance level (Pieterse, 2011).

Concluding words
Cultural differences cause problems, though same diversity can be highly profitable in a competitive environment. Some mondial companies have recognized that cultural distinct has number of advantages, or entirely accept it. There are a number of companies worldwide who use the system of getting profits from multiethnic personnel and such companies can deal with the issues related to the diversity. But those organizations which are going to try working with multinational staff can meet big difficulties. If the company decided to take distinction, business owners as well as the executives and managers should detect its necessity and use appropriate policies. It will be much easier to hire those specialists who already have experience in working in several multicultural companies (Kottolli, 2011).
An important sphere of corporative culture is connected with cultural distinctions between the countries. Dutch researcher Geert

Hofshtede classified cultural aspects of organization or countries on the basis of four characteristics:
1. Power distance (PD) defines the degree in which the culture encourages use of the power by the head. In cultures, where values of PD are high (Argentina or Spain), an inequality is taken for granted, and the ruling part of the company is expected to show its power. In the cultures having low values of PD (Canada, Australia) relations between people at various levels of hierarchy are closer.

2. Uncertainty avoidance (UA). This characteristic specifies degree of aspiration of people to avoid situations in which they feel uncertainly. Japan, Iran and Turkey are three of the several countries having high values of UA. At the same time people in cultures with low values of UA (Hong Kong and Taiwan) do not have stress from uncertain situations.

3. Individualism-collectivism (1C). It shows the tendency to show care of oneself or close relatives against the tendency of accessory to group and teamwork in collective. The USA and Britain have high values of 1C. The low values of 1C are shown in Philippines, Singapore.

4. Masculinity-femininity (MF). The characteristic defines degree of domination of “man’s” culture (with orientation to achievement of material success) or “female” culture which assumes ability of perception small, weak and sluggish. In typically “man’s” cultures (Italy, the republic of South Africa) the main attention is concentrated at money, financial position or ambitions (the more, the better). Contrary to it, in “female” cultures (Holland, the Scandinavian countries) special value is given to environment, quality of life etc. There is a big flexibility of sexual roles and an equality of sexes (Andrzej, 1991).

In order to avoid conflicts in multicultural collective the manager should know, that tools of formation and development of culture of an international company include both usual forms and means for the large companies (ceremonies, rituals, myths, legends, stories etc.), and specific tools, significant for the international business:

1. The universal sign-symbolical system including the names, signs, system of company identification.
2. Communications system (“official” language of corporation, spoken languages, slang, system of informal dialogue).
3. Constant rotation of executives and co-education of employees of the corporation representing different national cultures (Pieterse, 2011).

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