THE MAJOR FACTORS CONNECTED WITH NATURAL CHANGES
It is known that the major factors connected with natural changes include different solar changes, such as the effects of solar irradiance and magnetic field effects, as well as ocean-atmosphere interactions, such as multi-decadal climatic oscillations and unforced internal variability and others (Paterson, 2011, p.1). It is found that the temperatures of the Earth depend on the changes that take place in the shape of orbit of the Earth around the Sun as well as the tilt of the Earth’s axis. The Sun is considered to be the only source of energy that is responsible for proper functioning of the climate system on the Earth. That is why any changes in the output of solar energy can cause global warming (Rosser, 2008, p.7).
Norman Paterson, a Canadian geophysicist and professional engineer, discusses the role of these factors in global warming process. He states that there are many scientists who consider that natural changes in the activity of the sun and other ones influence global warming. They criticize the widely spread “greenhouse theory”. It is found that “the particular infrared absorption bands of CO2 provide it with a special ability to absorb and reradiate the sun’s longer wavelength radiation, causing warming of the troposphere and an increase in high-altitude (cirrus) cloud, further amplifying the heating process” (Paterson, 2011, p.1).
The sun is the main source of heat for the global climate system. Both the atmosphere and oceans can modify the heat of the sun. It is known that cosmic rays from outer space have the ability to form clouds in the troposphere and these clouds can not only shield the earth, but also they can provide a cooling effect. According to the scientific data, solar radiation can produce a thermal energy flux that is mixed with the solar magnetic field. It can act as a good shield against numerous cosmic rays and can lead to global warming (Paterson, 2011, p.1).
Other scientific researches pay special attention to the role of the overriding effect of solar radiation on global warming. It is found that “solar irradiance is one of the possible agents for the medium-term variations in Arctic temperatures over the past 135 years” (Paterson, 2011, p. 2). Besides, the indirect effects of solar irradiance on the clouds result in some modulations of the direct warming of the earth. Moreover, the solar insolation effects influence the intensity of the magnetic field of the Earth and are connected with historic periods of global warming, including the Medieval (Paterson, 2011, p.2).
Another factor that influences the problem discussed in this paper is the aerosol emission of volcanic eruptions which can block the sunlight and cause a short period of cooling in some parts of the Earth. It is known that “volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide” (Maslin, 2008, p.32).
One more significant factor related to natural changes that contribute to global warming is changes in the currents of the oceans. It is found that oceanic currents influence the changes in temperatures on the Earth. Besides, “the changes in oceanic currents vary from region to region and can influence the rotation of the sun” (Maslin, 2008, p.48).
It is known that regulating global warming is a serious and responsible task. According to the U.S. Supreme Court decision, “greenhouse gases met the definition of an air pollutant in the Clean Air Act”. In 2008, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) which clearly explains how the Clean Air Act applies to regulating emissions of greenhouse gases that are the major factors contributing to global warming (Berg, 2008, p.1). That is why the regulations to reduce emissions play an important role in finding solutions to the problem. In order to control global warming on our planet, it is necessary to make some changes in the life of all people that will help to save environment, to reduce pollution and to control global warming on the Earth. It is very effective in this situation to use the renewable sources of energy. Today a group of scientists that form the IPCC, or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has the major goal – to control global warming on our planet. The IPCC organizes regular meetings where the scientists discuss the latest scientific finding concerning global warming (Maslin, 2008, p.61).
Today the problem of global warming requires prompt and collaborated solutions. It is known that “global emissions of carbon dioxide or CO2 jumped by the highest amount on record in 2010” (Global Warming & Climate Change, 2012, para.2). According to the study of the Global Carbon Project, carbon emissions rose 5.9% in 2010. It means that the problem is really an acute one and that it is very difficult to stop severe climate change on our planet in the nearest future. However, it does not mean that the worldwide efforts to stop or control global warming process are useless. It is known that “for almost two decades, the United Nations has sponsored annual global talks, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an international treaty signed by 194 countries to cooperatively discuss global climate change and its impact” (Global Warming & Climate Change, 2012, para.4). Today the conferences adhere to the principle of consensus that means any of the participating countries can hold up an agreement. There are many conflicts and controversies concerning the problem of global warming control that are focused on the differing obligations of industrialized and developing countries. Some major questions include “who will pay to help poor nations adapt, the urgency of protecting tropical forests and the need to rapidly develop and deploy clean energy technology” (Global Warming & Climate Change, 2012, para.5).
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