Research paper: Challenges faced by managers of multicultural workforces and recommendations for management training

Today, the growing number of large, medium and small companies actively enter the foreign market, engaging into export activities, licensing, joint venturing, direct investing, management consulting. The number of mergers and acquisitions, strategic alliances and unions is also growing, which is usually preceded by cross-cultural negotiations. There is a growing number of multicultural organizations whose workers must recognize and respect differences, interests of cultural and social groups, exercise political correctness and rejection of discrimination (Anheier & Isar, 2008).

In these circumstances, it is the development of cross-cultural communication of managers that can improve the efficiency of management in a modern society under conditions of globalized economy and internationalization of production. In other words, understanding of the basic cultural principles of foreign partners or employees may be the central link to achieving success.

On the basis of collected and systematized information, since the early 1980’s attempts have been made to classify the types of business cultures, and allocate classification parameters or characteristics. The most widely used classification parameters today are the ones formulated by the Dutch scientist Geert Hofstede (1991), the American scientist Edward Hall (1990) and Dutch scientist Fons Trompenaars (1997). These classification parameters and characteristics (in spite of their methodological incompleteness) form the basis for practical recommendations aimed at preventing cross-cultural conflicts.

For the success of cross-cultural communication and managing multicultural workforce, the preliminary training of staff is crucial. Particular importance is attached to a cross-cultural training carried out on the basis of several approaches at a time, which will allow managers to form practical skills of intercultural interaction and increase the chances of getting a positive outcome of business activities.

However, the development of organization’s abilities consists not only in training employees, but also increasing their competence level. Thus, the collective experience of working together to implement innovations in a different cultural environment is necessary. For this purpose, it is important to gain experience in an experiment on changing the “repertoire” through the reconfiguration and recombination of resources and routines (understanding routines as the standardized means of employees) (Brock & Siscovick, 2007). Such experiments help increase the company’s ability to master new knowledge and transform the organization under the impact of globalization processes, which force to pay more attention to the analysis, understanding and optimization of cultural differences.


Anheier, H.K., & Isar, Y., (2008), Cultures and Globalization: The Cultural Economy, Sage Publications Ltd.
Bearden, W.O., Money, R. B., & Nevins, J, L., ‘Multidimensional Versus Unidimensional Measures in Assessing National Cultural Values: The Hofstede Vsm 94 Example’, Journal of Business Research 59 (2006): 195-203.
Black, J. S., & Mendenhall, M., ‘Cross-Cultural Training Effectiveness: A Review and a Theoretical Framework for Future Research’, The Academy of Management Review 15:1 (1990): 113-136.
Brock, D.M., & Siscovick, I.C., ‘Global integration and local responsiveness in multinational subsidiaries: Some strategy, structure, and human resource contingencies’, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources 45:3 (2007): 353-373.
Buchanan, D., Huczynski, A., & Pugh, D., (2007), Organisational Behaviour, Financial Times/ Prentice Hall.
Cateora, P.R., Gilly, M., & Graham, J.L., (2010), International Marketing (15th edn.), McGraw-Hill.
Chew, I. K.H., & Horwitz, F.M., ‘Human Resource Management Strategies in Practice: Case-Study Findings in Multinational Firms’, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources 42:1 (2004): 32-56.
Cutler, J., (2005), The Cross-Cultural Communication Trainer’s Manual: Designing Cross-cultural Training, Gower Pub Co.
Elashmawi, F., (2001), Competing Globally: Mastering Multicultural Management and Negotiations, Butterworth-Heinemann.
Eisenhardt, K. M., Bourgeois, L.J., III, & Kahwajy, J. L., ‘Conflict and strategic choice: how top- management team disagree’, California Management Review 39:2 (1997): 42-62.
Evans, S., ‘Conflict can be positive’, HR Magazine 37:5 (1992):49-51.
French, R., (2010), Cross-Cultural Management, London CIPD.
Fujita, A., ‘Creating new corporate culture through organizational fusion process in overseas operations’, Review of Economics and Business 18:2 (1990): 65-88.
Gelade, G.A., Dobson, P., & Auer, K., ‘Individualism, Masculinity, and the Sources of Organizational Commitment’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 39:5 (2008): 599-617.
Hall, E. T., (1990), Hidden Differences, Anchor.
Hill, C.W., (1997), International Business: Competing in the Global Market Place, Chicago, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
Hofstede, G., (1991), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, London: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede, G., (2001), Culture’s consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations across Nations, London, Sage.
Huang, X., & Vliert, E., ‘Comparing Work Behaviors Across Cultures: A Cross-Level Approach Using Multilevel Modeling’, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 3:2 (2003): 167-182.
Jackson, T., ‘Cultural values and management ethics: A 10-nation study’, Human Relations 54:10 (2001): 1267-1302.
Kluckhohn, F. R., & Strodtbeck, F. L., (1976), Variations in Values orientations, Greenwood Press.
Kohls, R.L., & Knight, J.M., (1994), Developing Intercultural Awareness: A Cross-Cultural Training Handbook (2nd edn.), Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Laurent, A., ‘The Cross-cultural Puzzle of International Human Resources Management’, Human Resource Management 25:1 (1986): 91-102.
Lee, J. S., & Akhtar, S., ‘Determinants of employee willingness to use feedback for performance improvement: cultural and organizational interpretations’, International Journal of Human Resources Management 7:4 (1996): 878-890.
Lincoln, J. R., ‘Employee work attitudes and management practice in the US and Japan’, California Management Review 32:1 (1989): 89-106.
Littrell, L.N., Salas, E., Hess, K.P., Paley, M., & Riedel, S., ‘Expatriate Preparation: A Critical Analysis of 25 Years of Cross-Cultural Training Research’, Human Resource Development Review 5:3 (2006): 355-388.
Mcsweeney, B., ‘Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences: a triumph of faith, a fallacy of analysis’, Human Relations 55:1 (2000): 89-118.
Mead, R., (2004), International Management: Cross-Cultural Dimensions, Wiley-Blackwell.
Mendenhall, M.E., Kuhlmann, T.M., & Stahl, G. K., (2000), Developing Global Business Leaders: Policies, Processes, and Innovations, Quorum Books.
Meschi, P., ‘Longevity and Cultural Differences of International Joint Ventures: Toward Time-Based Cultural Management’, Human Relations 50:2 (1997): 211-228.
Moore, F., (2005), Transnational Business Cultures: Life And Work In A Multinational Corporation, Ashgate Pub Ltd.
Moran, R.T., Harris, P.R., & Moran, S.V., (2007), Managing Cultural Differences (7th edn.), Butterworth-Heinemann.
Mullins, L.J., (2011), Essentials of Organisational Behaviour (3rd edn.), Prentice Hall.
Nevis, E.C., ‘Cultural assumptions and productivity: the United States and China’, Sloan Management Review 24:3 (1983): 17-29.
Pearson, C., & Entrekin, L., ‘Cross-cultural value sets of Asian managers: The comparative cases of Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore,’ Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources 39:1 (2001): 79-92.
Peterson, M.F., ‘The Heritage of Cross Cultural Management Research: Implications for the Hofstede Chair in Cultural Diversity,’ International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 7:3 (2007): 359-377.
Peterson, M.F., & Sondergaard, M., (2008), Foundations of Cross Cultural Management, Sage Publications Ltd.
Rollinson, D., (2008), Organisational Behaviour and Analysis: An Integrated Approach (4th edn.), Financial Times Management.
Schein, E. H., ‘Three cultures of management: the key to organizational learning’, Sloan Management Review 38:1 (1996): 9-20.
Smith, P.B., Dugan, S., & Trompenaars, F., ‘National Culture and the Values of organizational employees’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 27 (1996): 231-264.
Sondergaard, M., ‘Research note: Hofstede’s Consequences. A study of reviews, citations and replications’, Organisational Studies 15:3 (1994): 447-456.
Søderberg, A.M., & Holden, N., ‘Rethinking Cross Cultural Management in a Globalizing Business World’, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 2:1 (2002): 103-121.
Stahl, G. K., & Bjorkman, I., (2006), Handbook of Research in International Human Resource Management, Edward Elgar Publishing.
Thomas, D.C., (2008), Cross-Cultural Management: Essential Concepts (2nd edn.), Sage Publications, Inc.
Triandis, H.C., ‘Cultural Intelligence in Organizations’, Group & Organization Management 31:1 (2006): 20-26.
Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C., (1997), Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business (2nd edn.), McGraw-Hill.
Tung, R.L., ‘Expatriate assignments: enhancing success and minimizing failure’, Academy of Management Executive 1:2 (1987): 117-126.
Welch, D., ‘HRM application of globalisation’, Journal of General Management 19:4 (1994): 52-66.
Yoshimura, N., & Anderson, P., (1997), Inside the Caisha: Demistyfying Japanese Business Behavior, Harvard.
Zhu, Y., ‘From cultural adaptation to cross-cultural discursive competence’, Discourse & Communication 2:2 (2008): 185-204.

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages